By Richard Cumberland
"A Treatise of the legislation of Nature", initially titled "De Legibus Naturae", first seemed in 1672 as a theoretical reaction to a variety of matters that got here jointly in the course of the past due 1660s. It conveyed a conviction that technological know-how may perhaps provide a good technique of demonstrating either the contents and the compulsory strength of the legislations of nature. At a time whilst Hobbes's paintings seemed to recommend that the appliance of technological know-how undermined instead of supported the belief of compulsory ordinary legislations, Cumberland's "De Legibus Naturae" supplied a systematic clarification of the ordinary necessity of altruism. via his argument for an ethical legal responsibility to average legislations, Cumberland made a severe intervention within the early debate over the function of traditional jurisprudence at a second whilst the common legislations undertaking used to be largely suspected of heterodoxy and incoherence. this can be the 1st sleek variation of "A Treatise of the legislation of Nature", according to John Maxwell's English translation of 1727. The variation contains Maxwell's wide notes and appendixes. It additionally offers, for the 1st time in English, manuscript additions through Cumberland and fabric from Barbeyrac's 1744 French variation and John Towers's variation of 1750.
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Mr. William Graves, of Drogheda, Merchant. Mr. William Green, of the PostOffice, for 2 Books. Mr. William Green, Surgeon. Mr. Thomas Green. The Rev. Mr. Benjamin Gregory. Mr. John Gregory, for 2 Books. Mr. John Griffitt, for 2 Books. Mr. William Grigson. Mr. Groenewege. 15 Mr. Nicholas Groubere. Mr. Fletcher Gyles. H. The Rt. Hon. the Ld. Vis. Hatton. *The Rt. Hon. the Ld. C. B. Hale. Mr. Samuel Haliday. Mr. John Hall. The Rev. Dr. Hall. Mr. Hannibal Hall. Edward Hamage, Esq; Mr. Henry Hamage. Mr.
Such a Law-Giver must also have fenc’d his Laws, with the Sanction of sufficient Rewards and Punishments, otherwise his Laws were in vain; but a wise Being does nothing in vain. ” Human Wisdom has, therefore, every where guarded such of the Laws of Nature as could properly fall within their Cognizance, with the additional Sanction of positive Rewards, and Punishments; which, however, tho’ they pretty well support Civil Society, are by no Means a sufficient Fence to the Law of Nature, and that upon several Accounts, 1.
1. That all the Regions of the Universe may be replenished with proper Animals, and rational Inhabitants. 2. That there may be due Order amongst rational Agents, which requires some First, some Last, and some Middle, according to the usual Method of Nature, which gradually ascends. 3. That the Gods might not be polluted, as it were, nor descend beneath their Majesty, in managing human Affairs by themselves. 4. For the Management of the Affairs of their Religion and Virtue, and rendering their Souls more Happy, presiding over Oracles, and managing the Affairs of Prophecy and Divination.