Advanced Metallization and Interconnect Systems for Ulsi by R. C. Ellwanger, S. Q. Wang

By R. C. Ellwanger, S. Q. Wang

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Ing Klaus Schonert studied under Rumpf at the University of Karlsruhe, where he used single-particle breakage to study comminution, studied air separators to close drygrinding circuits in cement plants, and did his early studies on HPGRs. In 1968, he became the head of the university’s comminution group (Instituterfuer Aufberetung und Veredelung). Schonert’s research at the University of Karlsruhe and later at the Technical University in Clausthal, Germany (Technische Universitat Clausthal), led to the patenting of the HPGR in 1982.

Screens made of hazel twigs or horsehair were used to separate the fine particles. 13b. The ore grinders took ore that had been broken to 5-mm pieces in the mortars and broke it further to Copyright © 2005 by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. All rights reserved. Electronic edition published 2009. 25-mm pieces in the rotary querns. 5 kW of energy. The coarse product from the screen was returned to the mill for further grinding. Men and women grinding ores must have worked in conditions that were even worse than for those grinding grains because the pebbles were much harder.

The windmill, however, demanded a different solution. The force of the wind was constantly changing, and this had a curious effect on the action of the stones. As the speed of the mill increased, the runner stone would tend to rise on its spindle, opening the gap between the grinding surfaces and making constant adjustments necessary in a choppy breeze (Reynolds 1970). Grinding grain in stones driven by the wind must have seemed like a dream come true. The mill rotated to the music of the wind in the sails, and the grinders worked under Copyright © 2005 by the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration.

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