Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 36 by L. Marton (Ed.)

By L. Marton (Ed.)

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Modijied Two-Fluid Models of the Quiet Solar Wind with External Heating Sturrock and Hartle (1966; also Hartle and Sturrock, 1968) suggested that the most probable remedy for the ills of the basic two-fluid model is heating by dissipation of nonthermal energy far out into the solar wind. Parker (1965) reached a similar conclusion on the basis of his earlier studies of the one-fluid ” solar wind ( T , = T,). It seems to be generally agreed that dissipation of some sort of wave motion accounts for the high temperature of the inner corona (see review of Kuperus, 1969).

The relative importance of these mechanisms cannot be determined on the basis of quiet wind observations at 1 AU. Definitive observations on the question may come irom future spacecraft observations nearer the sun, since the different models give different profiles of the flow parameters, especially proton temperature (see Burlaga, 1971, for a more detailed discussion of this point). However, at present we are not limited to models of the quiet wind. Studies of the more normally active solar wind may provide additional circumstantial evidence as to what mechanisms govern the acceleration and heating of the solar wind.

From a theoretical viewpoint, the question of viscosity is exceptionally difficult. This would not be so if it were realistic either to use a laminar exospheric description of momentum transport, or the ordinary collisional viscosity. However, it is more probable that viscous transport in the region of noncollisional flow is governed by “collisions” between ions and fluctuations in the electromagnetic fields. The result of the wave-particle interactions would be to reduce the effective mean free path and thus reduce the viscosity from the classical collisional value.

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