By Firk F.W.K.
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Extra info for Age of Einstein (intro to relativity)
4 times more massive than our Sun, has a Schwarzschild radius of only 2km and a density of 1020 kg/m3. This is far 53 greater than the density of an atomic nucleus. 4 MSUN), the gravitational self-attraction leads inevitably to its collapse to a “point”. Studies of the X-ray source Cygnus X-1 indicate that it is a member of a binary system, the other member being a massive “blue supergiant” There is evidence for the flow of matter from the massive optical star to the X-ray source, with an accretion disc around the center of the X-ray source.
In Modern Physics, it is the custom to use the electron-volt (eV) as the unit of energy. An electron-volt is the energy acquired by an electron when accelerated by a potential difference of one volt. 511 MeV <∼∼ ∼∼> ⇒ Radiation Electron-positron annihilation is a prime example of the conversion of matter into electromagnetic radiation. (This is the basic process in PET scanning in Nuclear Medicine [Positron Emission Tomography]). From the measured electron and positron masses, and the measured energies of the two gamma-rays, we can obtain one of the most important results in our on-going quest for an understanding of the laws of Nature, and the associated workings of the physical universe.
Michell. It contained the following discussion: To escape to an infinite distance from the surface of a star of mass M and radius R, an object of mass m must have an initial velocity v0 given by the energy condition: initial kinetic energy of mass ≥ potential energy at surface of star, or (1/2)mv02 ≥ GMm/R (A Newtonian expression). This means that v0 ≥ √(2GM/R). 52 Escape is possible only when the initial velocity is greater than (2GM/R)1/2 . On the Earth, v0 ≥ 25,000 miles/hour. For a star of given mass M, the escape velocity increases as its radius decreases.