Always Separate, Always Connected: Independence and by Catherine Raeff

By Catherine Raeff

In recent times, there was a proliferation of theoretical and empirical scholarship on how problems with human separateness, or independence, and problems with human connectedness, or interdependence, are performed out in assorted cultural contexts. regardless of contract at the worth of realizing tradition and improvement by way of independence and interdependence, many matters stay open for endured theoretical refinement and empirical research. This publication offers a clean conceptualization which holds that independence and interdependence are multifaceted and inseparable dimensions of human functioning which may be outlined and enacted another way in numerous cultures. hence, the present method debts for the elemental separateness and connectedness of all people in a fashion that's either universally acceptable and culturally delicate. in keeping with this conceptual process, the focal point of this article is to delineate how diverse independence and interdependence concerns are interrelated in the course of improvement in culturally targeted methods. In doing so, the e-book deals a conceptual strategy that strikes cultural and developmental analyses past investigating even if a few cultures worth independence or interdependence roughly than others, to investigating how either independence and interdependence are construed and particularized in the course of improvement worldwide. constantly Separate, continuously hooked up: Independence and Interdependence in Cultural Contexts of improvement can be of curiosity to a variety of developmentalists in psychology, schooling, kinfolk reviews, anthropology, and sociology. additionally, the e-book may possibly serve complicated undergraduates, in addition to graduate scholars in those diverse disciplines. it could even be of curiosity to social welfare practitioners, similar to medical psychologists, assistance counselors, and social employees.

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Similarly, people sometimes conceptualize themselves as independent and sometimes conceptualize themselves as interdependent. I have further identified four specific “sometimes independence, sometimes interdependence” models. Independence and Interdependence as Primary and Secondary Orientations. , Greenfield, 2000; Greenfield & Suzuki, 1998). For example, in analyzing American culture, Bellah, Madsen, Sullivan, Swidler, and Tipton (1985/1986) proposed that an independence orientation is dominant in the United States, but that connectedness concerns comprise an American “second language” (p.

In my reading, this book and its accompanying videotape showed how children in a typical American preschool often congregate in one group and engage in common activities that are led by the teacher. Moreover, varied analyses (discussed later in this volume in chap. 5) indicate how American education is characterized by whole-class instruction, whereby the teacher lectures to the class as a whole, with little opportunity for children to contribute as individuals to their own learning. Finally, with regard to contrasting living with human companions to living with cats or dogs, it may indeed be the case that house pets are more common in some cultures than in others, but having house pets does not preclude living with others or valuing human companionship.

Overall, the “co-occurrence” model addresses some of the complexities of independence and interdependence, but we are still left with some unresolved issues and questions. For me, a major unresolved issue is whether the terms independence and interdependence represent cultural values that shape development, or dimensions of human activity, or both. To further clarify this issue, it would seem important to delineate how independence and interdependence as cultural values, and independence and interdependence as dimensions of activity, are interrelated in children’s developmental experiences.

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