America Or Europe?: British Foreign Policy, 1739-63 by Jeremy Black

By Jeremy Black

Why did Britain's place dramatically increase among 1739 and 1763? during this research, the writer examines a pivotal interval in Britain's upward thrust to strength prestige that culminated within the defeat of France within the fight for North the United States within the Seven Years' battle. The principal issues during this publication are the alternatives among battle and peace, the USA of Europe. Due weight is given to the interval of the battle of the Austrian Succession 1740-48, whilst British coverage used to be faraway from profitable and whilst the foremost subject matter was once problem with eu advancements, and to the years of inter-war international relations, whilst the time table used to be back ruled by way of ecu advancements, in particular the try to create a continental approach of collective safety to off set the Franco-Prussian alliance. concentrating on the international relations of the interval instead of, as with the vast majority of works, emphasizing the dominance of a fight with France for colonial and maritime superiority, new gentle is thrown on British overseas coverage during this interval.

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The determination to hit British trade is especially interesting. 63 25 BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY, 1739–63 Pitt, the volatile and egocentr ic Secretary of State for the Southern Department, responded to the new alliance by proposing a pre-emptive attack on Spain, resigning on 5 October 1761 when his plan was rejected. However, the failure of negotiations led to a British declaration of war on 2 January 1762. The Spaniards proved far worse prepared than they had assured the French and lost Havana and Manila to British amphibious attacks in 1762.

In August 1742 the well-informed, long-serving Sardinian envoy in London, Ossorio, referred to Stair as disposing of all the states of Europe as if he was ruler, and in November Stair wrote to Trevor, I am sure it is both the Interest and the Glory of the King our Master and of our Country, to remain fir mly united, according to our Engagements, with the Queen of Hungary. 17 34 BRITAIN AND THE WAR OF THE AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION Carteret’s vigorous espousal of the anti-French cause was marked by a certain degree of pragmatism.

60 Charles’s attitude helped to encourage French firmness in the face of stiff British territorial demands during abortive Anglo-French peace negotiations in the summer of 1761. 62 Attacks on Gibraltar, Ireland and Jamaica were discussed, as was pressure on Portugal, a leading commercial partner of Britain, to abandon her alliance. The determination to hit British trade is especially interesting. 63 25 BRITISH FOREIGN POLICY, 1739–63 Pitt, the volatile and egocentr ic Secretary of State for the Southern Department, responded to the new alliance by proposing a pre-emptive attack on Spain, resigning on 5 October 1761 when his plan was rejected.

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