Anthropologists and the Rediscovery of America, 1886-1965 by John S. Gilkeson

By John S. Gilkeson

This ebook examines the intersection of cultural anthropology and American cultural nationalism from 1886, while Franz Boas left Germany for the U.S., until eventually 1965, whilst the nationwide Endowment for the arts was once confirmed. 5 chapters hint the advance inside of educational anthropology of the thoughts of tradition, social classification, nationwide personality, price, and civilization, and their dissemination to non-anthropologists. As americans got here to think about tradition anthropologically, as a "complex complete" some distance broader and extra inclusive than Matthew Arnold's "the most sensible which has been proposal and said," so, too, did they arrive to determine American groups as stratified into social sessions special by way of their subcultures; to characteristic the making of the yankee personality to socialization instead of start; to find the uniqueness of yankee tradition in its subconscious canons of selection; and to view American tradition and civilization in an international point of view.

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34 Anthropologists and the Rediscovery of America Boas also presided over the gradual movement of anthropology out of the museum into the university – a shift accelerated by his resignation from the American Museum of Natural History in 1905 in a dispute over how anthropological specimens should be exhibited. In the meantime, the rise of fieldwork, the detailed study of ‘‘circumscribed natural communities’’ by university-trained fieldworkers, became the rite of passage for aspiring anthropologists as part and parcel of a larger shift in the ‘‘ecology’’ of natural history.

In anthropology. Next, Boas helped Frederic Ward Putnam to mount ‘‘living exhibits’’ of the world’s peoples at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, but his failure to secure a permanent curatorial position at the new Columbian Museum condemned him to more than a year of unemployment. Finally, late in 1896, Putnam engineered Boas’s appointment to the curatorial staff at New York’s American Museum of Natural History. Early in 1897, with the help of a subvention from Abraham Jacobi, Boas began lecturing on anthropology at Columbia.

E. B. ’’ Although he admitted in Van Norden’s magazine in 1907 that the ‘‘somewhat larger size of the white brain’’ could result in ‘‘a slightly greater ability’’ in white intelligence, Boas insisted that there was no relation between brain size and mental capacity. 55 In 1911, Boas synthesized his heterodox views on race, language, and culture in three seminal publications. S. Immigration Commission from 1908 until 1910. His discovery that the ‘‘head forms,’’ or shapes of the heads, of American-born children varied from those of their parents and their foreign-born siblings, and that variations correlated with length of residence in America, suggested the ‘‘relative plasticity’’ of ‘‘physical type’’ (or race) owing to environmental influence.

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