Biodegradation and Persistance by Walter Reineke (auth.), B. Beek (eds.)

By Walter Reineke (auth.), B. Beek (eds.)

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Anaerobic a-oxidation. Phenylglyoxylate or 4-hydroxyphenylglyoxylate are the products formed by the nitrate-reducing Pseudomonas strains [209] and Thauera aromatica [210]. The oxidative decarboxylation of phenylglyoxylate to benzoyl-CoA by phenylglyoxylate: NAD+ oxidoreductase (CoA benzoylating) [211] is not an unusual reaction, analogous to the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. Mandelate can be oxidized via phenylglyoxylate to benzoyl-CoA [212, 213]. Phenylpropionate is easily boxidized to benzoate [214] and further degraded as such.

Chrysosporium in its lignin degradation mechanism in that it does not involve lignin peroxidase activity [126]. Instead, its lignin degradation ability is assumed to be due to laccase activity [127, 128, 131, 170]. Laccase was found to be nonspecific as to its reducing substrate as well as able to oxidize a variety of substrates including polyphenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, diamines, and a range of other compounds. Bezalel et al. [171, 172] reported that Pleurotus ostreatus is able to mineralize various PAHs to 14CO such as phenanthrene, pyrene (no degradation in [157]), benzo[a]pyrene, 2 anthracene, and fluorene, but fails to mineralize fluoranthene.

A b-oxidation pathway that produces three acetyl moieties follows the ring cleavage. Acetyl-CoA may then further be oxidized to CO2 . 1 Channeling Reactions to Benzoyl-CoA Benzoyl-CoA is formed from a large variety of different compounds, such as phenol, 2-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, p-cresol, phenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, mandelate, hydroxymandelate, toluene, 2-aminobenzoate, 4-aminobenzoate, aniline, and many others. The pathways are summarized in Fig. 27 indicating that some analogous reactions take place with these quite different compounds.

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