Britannica Illustrated Science Library Rocks And Minerals by Inc. Encyclopaedia Britannica

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Between the Redwall Limestone and the Supai Group, there is temporal continuity. Unc onf orm ity Colorado River VISHNU SCHISTS UNKAR GROUP 54 FORMATION AND TRANSFORMATION OF ROCKS ROCKS AND MINERALS 55 Metamorphic Processes 570° F hen rocks are subjected to certain conditions (high pressure and temperature or exposure to fluids with dissolved chemicals), they can undergo remarkable changes in both their mineral composition and their structure. This very slow process, called metamorphism, is a veritable transformation of the rock.

The change experienced by these substances is called carbonization. O FORMATION OF PETROLEUM 26% OF THE PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMED IN THE WORLD COMES FROM COAL. In an anaerobic environment at a depth of about 1 mile (2 km), organic sediments that developed in environments with little oxygen turn into rocks that produce crude oil. PETROLEUM TRAPS Caprock Storage Rock ANTICLINE FAULT TRAP STRATIGRAPHIC TRAP SALINE DOME KEY Gas Petroleum (Oil) Water Coal Formation The movements of the Earth's crust subjected the strata rich in organic remains to great pressure and transformed them into hard coal over the course of 300 million years.

T Latitude 40° 32´ N Longitude 112° 9´ W WATER BASIN The phreatic layer, the closest aquifer to the surface below the water table, emerges at the bottom and forms a water basin with a peculiar color because of the copper salts in the deposit. How the Metal Is Extracted Thousands of pounds of explosives, trucks and shovels as large as a house, and massive grinding machines that can reduce hard rocks to dust are involved in the extraction process, and rock temperatures are raised to 4,500° F (2,500° C).

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