Catastrophe in the Making: The Engineering of Katrina and by William R. Freudenburg, Robert B. Gramling, Shirley Laska,

By William R. Freudenburg, Robert B. Gramling, Shirley Laska, Kai Erikson

When homes are flattened, cities submerged, and other people stranded with no electrical energy or maybe nutrients, we characteristic the anguish to “natural mess ups” or “acts of God.” yet what if they’re neither? What if we, as a society, are bringing those catastrophes on ourselves?
That’s the provocative thought of disaster within the Making, the 1st e-book to acknowledge storm Katrina no longer as a “perfect storm,” yet a tragedy of our personal making—and one who may possibly turn into average.  
The authors, one an established New Orleans resident, argue that breached levees and sloppy emergency reaction are only the obvious examples of presidency failure. the real challenge is extra deeply rooted and insidious, and stretches some distance past the Gulf Coast.
according to the fake promise of common prosperity, groups around the U.S. have embraced all manufacturers of “economic improvement” in any respect expenses. In Louisiana, that intended improvement pursuits turning wetlands into transport lanes. through exchanging a ordinary buffer opposed to hurricane surges with a 75-mile lengthy, out of date canal that expense 1000's of thousands of bucks, they guided the typhoon into the guts of latest Orleans and adjoining groups. The authors show why, regardless of their geographic alterations, California and Missouri are building—quite literally—toward related destruction.
Too frequently, the U.S. “growth laptop” generates wealth for a couple of and distress for plenty of. Drawing classes from the most costly “natural” catastrophe in American historical past, disaster within the Making exhibits why inconsiderate improvement comes at a cost we will unwell afford.

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This was a process we saw repeatedly in the aftermath of Katrina. When individuals had to fight to find food or water, it meant looking out for yourself only. You had to do whatever it took to find water for your kids or food for your parents. When these basic needs were met, people began to look out for each other, working together and constructing a community. If the relief organizations had saturated the city with food and water in the first two or three days, the desperation, the frustration, and the ugliness would not have set in.

By sailing across Lake Pontchartrain and then up Bayou St. 6 Bayou St. John cuts between the Metairie and Gentilly ridges, both of which are segments of a natural levee from an ancient channel of the Mississippi River. A third former levee, known today as the Esplanade Ridge, runs southeastward from Bayou St. John to the current natural levee of the Mississippi. ” Note that the map is approximately 45 degrees away from lining up with compass directions; North is toward the upper right. between the bayou and the river, and it had been used by Native Americans long before Europeans “discovered” the region.

Shallow, and infested by the tough roots of the region’s native cypress trees, it was initially hard to navigate. In addition, Governor Carondelet was transferred in 1797, just three years after the completion of the canal. By the time of the American takeover of the city in 1803, the canal had already fallen into disrepair. After the Louisiana Purchase, James Pitot and the Orleans Navigation Company worked hard to improve the canal, which was widened and deepened several times. Most of the trade on the canal, however, continued to have little to do with life on the Mississippi River.

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