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In the case of a triple bond, the attractive force pulling the two nuclei together will be greater and the bond length will be even shorter. 1). 7 Predict the shape and bond angles for species with four, three and two negative charge centres on the central atom using the valence shell electron pair repulsion theory (VSEPR). 9 The two ways of representing non-bonding electron pairs. Lewis diagrams are of use when we are learning what a covalent bond is, but the most useful representation of molecules is the structural formula.
3). 1 IONIC BONDING An element is a substance made up of atoms that are all of the same type. The majority of the 92 naturally occurring elements are metals. They are found on the left-hand side and the middle and lower sections of the periodic table. Metals tend to be shiny, have high melting and boiling points, and are generally good conductors of heat and electricity. Metal atoms tend to have low numbers of electrons (usually one or two) in their valence shells and, for this reason, have a tendency to lose these electrons so as to gain an outer-shell octet of electrons.
Using these figures, distinguish clearly between atomic mass, isotopic mass and mass number. 13 Lithium has 2 isotopes. 58%. Calculate the relative atomic mass of lithium. 14 Iridium is a rare and valuable metal that finds significant use as an alloying agent with platinum. 7%. Calculate the relative atomic mass of iridium. 45. 97. Determine the percentage abundance of each isotope. 72. It has only two isotopes. 0. Calculate the relative isotopic mass of the other isotope. 17 Explain the difference between a continuous spectrum and a line spectrum.