By Zaher A. Radi
Chapter 1 Gastrointestinal Tract (pages 11–71):
Chapter 2 Bone–Tendon–Ligament process (pages 72–126):
Chapter three Renal method (pages 127–179):
Chapter four Cardiovascular method (pages 180–227):
Chapter five Ocular method (pages 228–269):
Chapter 6 breathing approach (pages 270–308):
Chapter 7 present learn recommendations for Designing more secure NSAIDs (pages 309–319):
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Extra resources for Comparative Pathophysiology and Toxicology of Cyclooxygenases
For example, in humans, enteric-coated aspirin was designed to reduce stomach irritation by delaying absorption until the drug reached the small intestine. , 1990). Ruminants have a forestomach (comprised of rumen, reticulum, and omasum) that is followed by a true stomach (abomasum). The rumen is highly permeable to volatile fatty acids released from carbohydrate metabolism and is also capable of active sodium and chloride absorption. Therefore, the large size of the rumen affects the response to oral toxicants, and initial exposure to toxicants may result in dilution and slowing of the absorption rate.
2004). A large body of data has been published comparing the GI safety of COX-2 s-NSAIDs, celecoxib, and varied ns-NSAIDs. , 2000). The primary endpoint in CLASS was the incidence of ulcer complications (ulcer perforation, gastric outlet obstruction, or upper GI bleeding). The secondary endpoint was complicated and symptomatic ulcer events. , 2000). , 2001). The Successive Celecoxib Efﬁcacy and Safety Study (SUCCESS) was a 12-week double-blind randomized trial in 13,274 patients from 39 countries.
COX-1 inhibition alone does not cause GI injury. , 2002a). , 2009). , 2002). The effects of SC-560, rofecoxib, and indomethacin on the healing of colon lesions induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the rat were investigated. , 2006). Okayama et al. (2001) found that SC-560 signiﬁcantly worsened the severity of colonic damage in DSS-induced colitis in rats. , 2005). In healthy rats, neither the sNSAID rofecoxib nor the COX-1 inhibitor SC-560 when given alone at 20 mg/kg induced gastric mucosal injury.