By Wolfgang Schneider
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Extra resources for Continuous Casting
Figure 8 looks at the problem in another way, with the rod entered at the start, as per normal practice, but this time with stirring occurring later in the cast. Here, the same response as before can be noted. When a higher loading is introduced from the furnace in the presence of the grain refiner, a sharp decline in the filter efficiency occurs. ) Figure 7: No grain refiner – stirred throughout cast – “high” inclusion load In summary, it is postulated that the introduction of Ti & B containing grain refiner material alters the behavior of the ceramic foam filter in trapping and/or retaining particles thus causing them to have a diminished efficiency compared to those found in the absence of grain refiner.
Today, most starting blocks are designed with such a cone. During the start-up phase of an extrusion ingot casting hot tears or shrinkage porosity may form above the centre cone of the starting block. This hot tear may extend through the length of the casting. It was suspected that a hot spot at the top of the cone or a reduced heat transfer in this region could support the formation of a starting crack. A series of experiments with varying starting conditions and measurements of temperature in the starting block and the ingot were launched to identify the problem.
Note, it was assumed that the absence of borides had no effect on the TiAl3 dissolution rate. 7%Ti rod, stirred before casting 14 Impurity Level N15 [k/kg ] 12 after filter 10 before filter 8 6 rod up to max. 7% TiAl rod has been introduced after 30 minutes of casting. The same effect was observed for a settled melt. Significantly, no effect of the addition is evident before or after the filter. 31 This suggests that the presence of TiAl3 does not contribute to the before or after filter counts and that the effects being measured are not being partly caused by undissolved TiAl3.