By Rene Van Grieken, Koen Janssens
This ebook more often than not comprises contributions by way of the invited academics on the seventh foreign convention on Non-Destructive trying out and Micro-Analysis for the Diagnostics and Conservation of the Cultural and Environmental history. The members have all been selected for his or her person reputations and the standard in their learn, but in addition simply because they symbolize a box deemed hugely vital. for that reason, this ebook provide balanced insurance of the parts which are such a lot appropriate in non-destructive checking out and micro-analysis within the realm of cultural history. The research equipment give you the scientific composition of cultural artifacts to clarify their provenance, the speed of alteration due to publicity to the surroundings and the effectiveness of conservation and recovery techniques. The recommendations are partly or totally non-destructive, are moveable, or enable examine of other elements of a heterogeneous murals.
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Inconsistencies might be a good indication for a falsification and further examinations may be considered. During the investigation of a painting that was attributed to Amadeo Modigliani certain pigments were found that were not observed in an extended set of paintings of the artist. Moreover, several pigments that were retrieved in all of these reference works were not present in the suspect artefact. This indication of forgery was confirmed later by a radiographic study of the painting technique of the 27 work.
These are accompanied by certain truths, fundamental values and rules from the teaching of Christ or from other equivalent sources of the same mystical tradition. Three great fresco ensembles were studied: – the Church of the Protaton, painted by Manuel Panselinos (1295 AD), – the wall-paintings of St Nicolas Anapausas, Meteora, painted by Theophanes the Cretan (1525 AD) and – the wall-paintings of the Transfiguration of the Saviour, Dousikon, painted by Tzortzis (1557 AD). The first attempt made in approaching and studying this authentication was based on: – the results of the application of the interpretative, analytical methods of infrared reflectography, the measurement of colour, optical microscopy, and µFTIR and µRaman spectroscopies, – the understanding of the theology of icons as recorded by the great Fathers of the Church, and – the interpretations of contemporary theologians and researchers of Byzantine icons and of Byzantine art in general.
Some Mercatellis manuscripts have been examined with micro-Raman spectroscopy and total-reflection x-ray fluorescence. All the samples from the manuscripts contained a considerable amount of calcium. This was ascribed to the original preparation of the parchment. From the Raman investigations it was clear that calcium was present as chalk (CaCO3 ) as well as gypsum (CaSO4 ·2H2 O). 30 Figure 1. Illustration from the Mercatellis manuscripts, showing a huge collection of books on the background. The large books were preserved in a vertical position and had ornaments in metal, in order to protect them.