Decolonizing the Colonial City: Urbanization and by Colin Clarke

By Colin Clarke

During this sequel to Kingston, Jamaica: city improvement and Social swap, 1692 to 1962 (1975) Colin Clarke investigates the function of sophistication, color, race, and tradition within the altering social stratification and spatial patterning of Kingston, Jamaica considering independence in 1962. He additionally assesses the lines - created via the doubling of the inhabitants - on labour and housing markets, that are themselves vital parts in city social stratification. exact consciousness is additionally given to color, type, and race segregation, to the formation of the Kingston ghetto, to the function of politics within the construction of zones of violence and drug buying and selling in downtown Kingston, and to the contribution of the humanities to the evolution of nationwide tradition. a different function is the inclusion of a number of maps produced and compiled utilizing GIS (geographical info systems). The ebook concludes with a comparability with the post-colonial city difficulties of South Africa and Brazil, and an evalution of the de-colonization of Kingston.

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Extra info for Decolonizing the Colonial City: Urbanization and Stratification in Kingston, Jamaica

Sample text

For the Chinese and East Indians, endogamy remained the ideal, though both groups had an excess of males, who entered into cohabitation or extra-residential mating with black women. The representation of religious groups in Kingston during the postemancipation period is adequately summarized by the 1881 census. At that date one-quarter of the inhabitants of Kingston parish were Anglican, onequarter Methodist, 17 per cent Catholic, and 8 per cent Baptist. There were also small numbers of Jews and ‘pagans’—mostly Hindus.

By the middle of the nineteenth century 500 pupils were enrolled at Wolmer’s School, but few entry scholarships were awarded and the system of fee-paying virtually excluded blacks. Basic educational standards had improved immensely by 1921, when the literacy rate reached almost 80 per cent in Kingston and 64 per cent in St Andrew. But while the educational system Wtted the blacks for their lowly social role it did not prepare them economically. Craftsmanship and mechanical skills were neglected, and for many years the only source of trained labour was the reformatory at Stony Hill in St Andrew (Clarke 1975a).

The pantheism and ancestor cults of the Coromantins from the Gold Coast were gradually incorporated into the beliefs of the entire slave population. Slaves lived in fear of the spirits of the dead, and often engaged obeah men (practitioners of black magic) to manipulate malevolent duppies (ghosts). Baptism came to be viewed as a protection against black magic and became an end in itself. This presented a major obstacle to the nonconformist missionaries at the end of the slave period. Furthermore, black bible-class leaders channelled slaves into unorthodox beliefs and often established break-away cults (Curtin 1955).

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