By Paul Shewmon

This moment variation is an up-to-date and revised model of the unique textual content. It bargains special descriptions of the tools on hand to foretell the incidence of diffusion in alloys subjected to numerous approaches. significant subject parts lined contain diffusion equations, atomic thought of diffusion, diffusion in dilute alloys, diffusion in a focus gradient, diffusion in non-metals, excessive diffusivity paths, and thermo- and electro-transport. this is often a great textbook to be used in metallurgical and fabrics technological know-how and engineering schooling.

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If a single crystal is available with the e axis (the sixfold axis in hexagonal or fourfold in tetragonal) normal to one face, the tracer can be deposited on that face. After diffusion the concentration gradient is parallel to the e axis, since D l3 = D 23 = 0, and so is the flux. If the concentration distribution e(u) is determined by taking sections parallel to the initial face, one obtains D 33 from a plot of [ne versus u2 • If the e axis is in the face covered with the tracer, the flux and the gradient are again parallel, and the determination of D 11 is straightforward.

24). Since r i ' r i+1 equals ri+l . r i, these two sums can be combined. Proceeding in this manner gives n-l R~ = 2: ri'ri + 22: ri'ri+ + 22: r i 'ri+ 1 i=1 2 + ... i=l i=1 n-} n-j = 2: rf + 22: 2: r i~l j~l i . (2-5) r i +j i~l To put this in the form we shall finally work with, note that by definition ri'r i+j = hllri+jlcos (Ji,i+j where (Ji,i+j is the angle between the two vectors. i+j, or (4) the number of dimensions in which the atom is jumping. We shall proceed to make assumptions about these and calculate an average value of R~.

Still another interstitial eonfiguration is ealled the erowdion. It has the extra atom plaeed in a close-paeked direetion, OErlO oOoDo (a) (b) Fig. 2-7-(100) plane of fee lattiee with two atoms sharing one site. The differenee between (a) and (b) is an interstitialey jump. Atomic Theory of Diffusion 61 0000000 0000000 Fig. 2-8-(111) plane of fee lattiee showing a erowdion. ) thus displacing several atoms from their equilibrium position (see Fig. 2-8). This configuration resembles an edge dislocation in that its distor- tion is spread out along a line, it can glide in only one direction, and the energy to move it is quite small.