By C. Smith, E.J. Wood
Five. 2 Early background of the research of glucose metabolism one hundred and one five. three The Embden-Meyerhof pathway 104 five. four organic value of the glycolytic pathway 107 five. five Glycogen and different polysaccharides a hundred and ten five. 6 different monosaccharides one hundred fifteen five. 7 The pentose phosphate pathway 116 five. eight review 122 solutions to routines 123 Questions 123 6 Lipids: breakdown of fatty acids; brown fats; ruminant metabolism a hundred twenty five 6. 1 creation one hundred twenty five 6. 2 Triacylglycerols as strength reserves a hundred twenty five 6. three Oxidation of fatty acids 126 6. four Thermogenesis 129 6. five Ruminant metabolism 133 6. 6 review 137 solutions to workouts 137 Questions 138 7 Amino acid catabolism 139 7. 1 creation 139 7. 2 Protein degradation 139 7. three elimination of nitrogen from amino acids 141 7. four crucial amino acids one hundred forty four 7. five Carbon chain catabolism 146 7. 6 Interconversion of amino acids and transamination one hundred fifty 7. 7 Pathways for nitrogen excretion a hundred and fifty five 7. eight Biosynthesis of urea 156 7. nine assessment a hundred and sixty solutions to workouts one hundred sixty Questions one hundred sixty solutions to questions 162 thesaurus 167 Index 169 vi Contents / / '--------------' Editors' Foreword This booklet is one in all a chain of short fundamental·· texts for junior undergraduates and degree scholars in organic technological know-how. The sequence, Molecular and telephone Biochemistry, covers the full of modem biochemistry, integrating animal, plant and microbial subject matters.
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Extra resources for Energy in Biological Systems
30 The fate of the energy of food eaten by a heterotrophic herbivore. Fig. 29 The fungus Penicillium sp. (x 90). Of the food consumed, some energy is lost in faeces and in the hydrolysis of food molecules. Monosaccharides, fatty acids and amino acids, are absorbed by the cells of the digestive tract and then transported around the body of the organism. Some molecules are used directly in the replacement of cell components, growth and reproduction. Other molecules are catabolized, providing energy and intermediates for anabolism.
7. Electrons from sulphur compounds enter the electron transport chain of the sulphur bacteria at a variety of points (Fig. 26). The transfer of electrons to molecular oxygen as electron acceptor leads to the synthesis of ATP. Until recently, it was thought that chemolithotrophs contributed relatively little to the overall primary productivity of the biosphere. However, some colourless sulphur bacteria obtain their energy from reduced compounds in the heated mineral waters of thermal vents in the deep rifts of oceans.
Q) o:::J 31 p-NMR spectra of maize root tips perfused with either (a) oxygen or (b) nitrogen. The peaks corresponding to Pi in the cytosol. Pi in the vacuole. and the phosphate in ATP and ADP are indicated. M. Roberts (1984) Annual Review of Plant PhvsiologV. 35. 375-86. M. (1984) Study of plant metabolism in vivo using NMR spectroscopy. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 35, 375-86. A short review of the use of NMR, especially in the investigation of metabolism in plant tissues. U C1J > cL -10 (a) = -30 (bl THE PHOSPHORYLATION POTENTIAL is an index of metabolic energy which expresses the relative concentration of ATP in the cell according to the following relationship.