Environmental chemistry by Colin Baird

By Colin Baird

This consultant to environmental chemistry covers significant topical concerns, together with the greenhouse impression, the ozone layer, insecticides, and air and water toxins. The textual content deals an lively problem-solving process, with routines included all through each one bankruptcy.

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As we have seen previously, ozone does efficiently absorb UV light with wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, and the excited state thereby produced does undergo a dissociation reaction. Thus absorption of a UV-C or UV-B photon by an ozone molecule in the stratosphere results in the decomposition of that molecule. This photochemical reaction accounts for much of the ozone destruction in the middle and upper stratosphere: This is one destruction reaction of ozone. O3 ϩ UV photon (␭ Ͻ 320 nm) 9: O2* ϩ O* The oxygen atoms produced in the reaction of ozone with UV light have an electron configuration that differs from the lowest energy configuration, and therefore exist in an electronically excited state; the oxygen molecules from the reaction also are produced in an excited state.

On the left side of this reaction, we have printed in green all the atoms of the reactants that are utilized in the desired product; the remaining atoms (which become part of our waste by-products) are printed in black. Adding up all of the green atoms on the left side of the reaction, we get 4 C, 9 H, and 1 Br (reflecting the molecular formula of the desired product, 1-bromobutane). The molar mass of these atoms collectively is 137 g mol–1, the molar mass of 1-bromobutane. Adding up all the atoms of the reactants gives 4 C, 12 H, 5 O, 1 Br, 1 Na, and 1 S, and the total molar mass of all these atoms is 275 g mol–1.

2/2/12 11:19 AM 1 Stratospheric Chemistry The Ozone Layer In this chapter, the following introductory chemistry topics are used: m m m m Moles; concentration units including mole fraction Ideal gas law; partial pressures Thermochemistry: ⌬H, ⌬Hf; Hess’ law Kinetics: Rate laws; reaction mechanisms, activation energy, catalysis Introduction The ozone layer is a region of the atmosphere that is called “Earth’s natural sunscreen” because it filters out harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight before they can reach the surface of our planet and cause damage to humans and other life forms.

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