Equine reproductive physiology, breeding and stud management by Mina C. G. Davies Morel

By Mina C. G. Davies Morel

This publication includes 21 chapters on horse copy and breeding, together with the anatomy and keep watch over of copy in mares and stallions, body structure and endocrinal keep an eye on of being pregnant and foaling, lactation, choice and guidance of mares and stallions for breeding, administration of the mare while pregnant and foaling, foal administration, weaning, stallion administration, infertility, man made insemination and embryo move. to be had In Print

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A typical stallion sperm. movement in a wave-like motion (Amann and Graham, 1993; Davies Morel, 1999). 1. Spermatogenesis As discussed, sperm are produced within the seminiferous tubules and are supported, or nursed, by Sertoli cells. They start as underdeveloped germinal cells or spermatogonia attached to the wall of the seminiferous tubules (Fig. 12; Amann, 1981b; Amann and Graham, 1993). 6 days). The total time for spermatogenesis in the stallion is 57 days. 1. 4 days (Fig. 12). Spermatocytogenesis is the development of spermatogonia by spermatozoal division from the underdeveloped germinal cells or gonocytes in the 24 base of the seminiferous tubules.

2000). , 2000). Prolactin, another major seasonally affected hormone, is suggested by some to be responsible in the horse for non-reproductive seasonal changes such as changes in metabolic rate and increase in the food conversion efficiency during the winter months, a time of food deprivation. Especially evident in the more native breeds, this demonstrates an innate ability of the equine body to anticipate environmental conditions and respond accordingly. , 1991). Prolactin was previously thought, therefore, to translate primarily the changes in day length to seasonal changes in nonreproductive physiology, with only a limited effect on reproductive seasonality.

Second, central nervous system stimulation causes contraction of the muscles associated with the penis, in particular the ischiocarvenosus muscle which draws the penis up against the ischial arch, further restricting venous blood flow out of the penis and so further increasing blood pressure. , 1972; Korenman, 1998). 44 The second and third stages of semen deposition are emission, the passage of seminal plasma from the accessory glands and sperm from the epididymis to the urethral area of the penis; and ejaculation, the passage of this seminal plasma and sperm (semen) along the penis and into the mare after intromission.

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