Evolutionary Psychology: The Ultimate Origins of Human by Jack A. Palmer

By Jack A. Palmer

A quick, wide creation to the rising box of evolutionary psychology (the learn of adaptive value of behavior). 10 brief chapters introduce the reader to the most important themes in the box of evolutionary psychology (from "Social Order and affliction" to "Mating and copy" to "The inventive Impulse: The Origins of know-how and Art"). For psychologists, scholars, or someone drawn to evolutionary psychology.

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Yet their measurement presents difficulties. They are all interrelated, and, although our present knowledge does not allow us to characterize their interrelations with adequate precision and confidence, the links between them must be uncovered if their importance for the nervous system is to be understood. There can be little doubt that the four concepts—novelty, uncertainty, conflict, and complexity—are among our most valuable tools for research into stimulus selection. We must, therefore, attempt to find some tolerably stable meanings that can be attached to them and to look at some of the most manifest ways in which they are connected with one another.

As far as behavior is concerned, states of high entropy, uncertainty, and conflict are states of disequilibrium. The manifold influences that play on organisms from outside and inside would, no doubt, soon lead to a degradation of behavior paralleling the degradation of energy that follows from the principle of increasing entropy, were it not for special mechanisms that come into play when this biologically perilous development threatens. Maturation and learning lead away from the uncoordinated squirming of the newborn infant or the perplexed groping of an animal in an unfamiliar environment toward increasing uniformity and predictability of behavior (see Miller and Frick 1949).

It is obvious that all stimuli are novel at some time, and so all stimuli must at some time have the effects peculiar to novelty. But having once occurred, and especially having occurred repeatedly, they must lose these effects. This might be the result of some process resembling the habituation of an unlearned response. Unlearned responses, if repeatedly evoked, often undergo both temporary and chronic declines in strength (Peckham and Peckham 1887), and such temporary and chronic habituation processes could rob stimulus patterns of the effects 20 peculiar to short-term novelty and to complete or long-term novelty respectively.

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