Fault Tolerant Flight Control: A Benchmark Challenge by Christopher Edwards, Thomas Lombaerts, Hafid Smaili

By Christopher Edwards, Thomas Lombaerts, Hafid Smaili

The ecu Flight Mechanics motion workforce FM-AG(16) on Fault Tolerant keep watch over, confirmed in 2004 and concluded in 2008, represented a collaboration regarding 13 eu companions from undefined, universities and learn institutions less than the auspices of the crowd for Aeronautical examine and know-how in Europe (GARTEUR) software. The e-book includes 5 elements. half I includes the advent and motivation of this study venture and a cutting-edge assessment in Fault Tolerant Flight keep watch over (FTC). half II comprises the outline of the benchmark problem, together with information of the benchmark simulation version and the overview standards used to guage the functionality of the Fault Tolerant Controllers. half III covers all of the diversified FDI/FTC layout tools which were utilized to the benchmark simulation version. There are assorted overview tools for those FDI/FTC designs, specifically an off-line evaluate utilizing the evaluate standards within the benchmark simulation version in Matlab, and an online overview on Delft’s SIMONA examine Simulator. The off-line reviews are defined within the person chapters partially III, while the latter is handled broadly partially IV the place the genuine time tests at the SIMONA examine Simulator are brought and mentioned. ultimately half V makes a speciality of a evaluation of the utilized tools from an commercial viewpoint including a few concluding remarks.

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In contrast to the analysis performed by the Netherlands Accident Investigation Bureau, the DFDR flight parameters were reconstructed using modelling, simulation and visualisation techniques in which the DFDR pilot control inputs were applied to detailed flight control and aerodynamic models of the accident aircraft. The purpose of the analysis was to acquire an estimate of the actual flying capabilities of the aircraft and to study alternative control strategies for a successful recovery. The application of this technique resulted in a simulation model of the impaired aircraft that could reasonably predict the performance, controllability effects and control surface deflections observed on the DFDR.

Finally, fig. 24(b) shows a picture of the stabilizer on the re-assembled wreckage after the crash. This is a top view, the structure on the top left is the tail engine housing. It is clear where the No. 2 fan disk is located in that housing, since the skin is completely missing there. With regard to the stabilizer, it is clear that the inner part was damaged to a significantly larger extent than the outer one. Since the aircraft was swinging through a gradual right turn at the airway intersection at the moment the tail-mounted engine disintegrated, its ‘frozen’ control surfaces left it with the tendency to continue the turn.

Fortunately, it was a short flight with a light load, the total weight being only 220 klb, well below maximum landing weight. This was a clear and essential advantage compared with the EL AL scenario described earlier, since the aircraft was in an acceptable configuration in order to perform immediately a relatively safe landing with acceptable approach speed. Because of the expanding left wing damage, the only way to control the aircraft, namely by applying differential thrust, had also a time critical issue which ruled out any option of fuel jettison before switching over to the landing.

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