By J. D. Gilchrist and R. W. Douglas (Auth.)
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Extra info for Fuels, Furnaces and Refractories
The two large sheets of coke in the oven are fissured in a honeycomb pattern, and on discharge break into pieces roughly half as long as the oven is wide and about 15-25 cm across. The outer (cauliflower) ends are hard, silvery grey and finely porous. The inner ends are often softer, almost black, and the pores are more obvious. There may be further variations in appearance, hardness and reactivity with position in the oven, particularly from top to bottom as affected by the mode of charging. The properties of a CARBONIZATION 33 coke depend mainly on the nature of the coal (blend) but also on operating conditions.
Porosity is now believed to have only a minor effect on reactivity. Bulk density is the mass per unit volume including voidage between lumps, and is usually determined by weighing a level wagon-load. It is of interest as a factor for converting volumes to weights when charging is on a volume basis. Corrected to a standard apparent density it is also a sensitive index of strength— or rather of degree of breakdown—and one authority has claimed that coke bulk density correlates better with blast-furnace performance than any other property.
Which differ mainly in the arrangement of the flues. The main aim is to produce a uniform temperature over all the oven walls in the battery, and the operation of the battery is also directed toward this end. Ovens are charged and discharged in a special order to preserve this uniform distribution of temperature and avoid damage to the battery through a badly distributed load, especially if the coal swells. The ends of the ovens are sealed with heavy brick-lined doors which are handled by service vehicles which run on each side of the battery.