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Extra info for Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practice (Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing)
For instance, the magnetic ﬁeld of a bar magnet is created by the motion of negatively charged electrons within iron atoms. The cause of the Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld is not completely understood, but it is believed to be associated with electrical currents produced by the coupling of convective effects and rotations in the spinning liquid metallic outer core of iron and nickel. It has a uniform distribution over a wide area (several kilometers). It was ﬁrst measured by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1835 and has been repeatedly measured since then, showing a relative decay of about 5% over the last 150 years.
As a consequence, the ﬁrst and often most important design challenge for a WSN is energy efﬁciency. This requirement permeates every aspect of sensor node and network design. For example, the choices made at the physical layer of a sensor node affect the energy consumption of the entire device and the design of higher-level protocols (Shih et al. 2001). 4) where Ctotal is the total capacitance switched by the computation, Vdd is the supply voltage, Ileak is the leakage current, and t is the duration of the computation.
As a consequence, sensor networks require new solutions for key establishment and distribution, node authentication, and secrecy. 7 Other Challenges From the discussion so far, it becomes clear that many design choices in a WSN differ from the design choices of other systems and networks. 2 summarizes some of the key differences between traditional networks and wireless sensor networks. A variety of additional challenges can affect the design of sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks. , changing overlapping sensing regions).