By Bosun Xie
This e-book systematically information the fundamental rules and functions of head-related move services (HRTFs) and digital auditory demonstrate (VAD), and reports the newest advancements within the box, particularly these from the authors personal cutting-edge study group.
during this up to date moment variation, Head-Related move functionality and digital Auditory Display covers binaural listening to and the elemental ideas, experimental measurements, computation, actual features analyses, clear out layout, and customization of HRTFs. It additionally information the foundations and functions of VADs, together with headphone and loudspeaker-based binaural copy, digital copy of stereophonic and multi-channel encompass sound, binaural room simulation, rendering structures for dynamic and real-time digital auditory environments, psychoacoustic review and validation of VADs, and a number of purposes of VADs.
--Discusses and summarizes the elemental rules and purposes of head-related move features and digital auditory display
--Reviews the frontiers and most up-to-date methods (modeling, calculations, rendering/display) in HRTF and VAD, helpful for researchers, graduate scholars, and engineers within the field
--Applications from this study are available in engineering, communications, multimedia, purchaser digital items, and entertainment
--More than six hundred references are indexed, encompassing the vast majority of literature during this box
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Extra resources for Head-related transfer function and virtual auditory display
For a point source, the direct sound pressure is inversely proportional to the source distance relative to the received point (1/r law); or, equally, the relationship between energy density and distance obeys an inverse-square law. Therefore, the closer to the sound source, the larger the direct-sound energy density is, and vice versa. 30) where DS is the directivity factor of the source, and r is the distance between the source and the receiver. , K = 1), is called the reverberation radius, room radius, or critical distance, and is given by: rc = 1 DS Sα .
Numerous studies on the mechanism of the precedence effect have been conducted; generally, the precedence effect is seen as originating from comprehensive processing of the binaural sound information by the high-level neural system. Some models of the precedence effect have been proposed (see Zurek, 1987). In addition, some hearing phenomena associated with the precedence effect are meaningful in room acoustics and spatial hearing, which are discussed in the following section. 4. , competitive speech sources) simultaneously exist, the auditory system can take advantage of the spatial separation of the desired and interfering sound sources to more effectively detect the desired speech information.
The human auditory system tends to localize sound from a visible source position. For example, when watching television, the sound usually appears to come from the screen, although it actually comes from the loudspeakers. However, an unnatural perception may occur when the discrepancy between the visual and auditory location is too large, such as when a loudspeaker is positioned behind the television audience. This phenomenon further indicates that sound source localization is the consequence of a comprehensive processing of a variety of information received by the high-level neural system.