By M. Koc
Hydroforming makes use of a pressurised fluid to shape part shapes. the method permits the manufacture of lighter, extra advanced shapes with elevated power at cheaper price in comparison to extra conventional strategies reminiscent of stamping, forging, casting or welding. therefore hydroformed elements are more and more getting used within the aerospace, automobile and different industries. This authoritative publication experiences the rules, functions and optimisation of this significant method. After an advent, the 1st a part of the ebook experiences the foundations of hydroforming, from gear and fabrics to forming procedures, layout and modelling. the second one a part of the publication studies the variety of hydroforming options, the shaping of specific elements and the appliance of hydroforming in aerospace and car engineering. With its individual editor and workforce of individuals, Hydroforming for complex production should be a useful reference for all these constructing and utilizing this crucial method.
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Additional resources for Hydroforming for Advanced Manufacturing
8). Because the servo valve offers the ability to control either the flow rate or the pressure, the press can be operated in either position or load control, as required. Position feedback is provided by a digital position transducer connecting the moving clamp plate to the fixed portion of the press, which allows the controller to maintain the absolute position of the clamp actuator at all times. The applied tonnage is converted from a sensor reading of the applied hydraulic pressure within the clamp actuator.
Several factors need to be considered when determining the size of the HPS which include the clamp actuator(s) volume, the rate at which the clamp actuator(s) is required to travel, and the time allowed to raise the pressure of the oil to reach the required clamping tonnage. If only one WPNL2204 Hydroforming systems: equipment, controls and tooling 37 hydraulic pump is used to operate the entire system, then feed actuator and pressure intensifier actuator volumes and travel rate requirements need to be considered as well.
21 Illustration of adaptive simulation technique to determine appropriate loading path for hydroforming process (Altan and Koç, 1999). 22 Effect of loading path design on the final part properties such as attainable bulge height and thinning. WPNL2204 24 Hydroforming for advanced manufacturing In case 2, internal pressure is slightly lower during the initial stages (up to 4 s) while axial feeding is kept higher compared with case 1. As seen in Fig. 22b, loading case 2 provided a bulge height of 32 mm with a maximum thinning value of 30% while case 1 resulted in 25 mm with same amount of thinning.