Influence of Ions on the Electrification and Rate of by Loeb J.

By Loeb J.

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Extra info for Influence of Ions on the Electrification and Rate of Diffusion of Water Through Membranes (1919)(en)

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Rents on property completed before 1988 are determined either by the rent officer or by the association itself; however, in both cases surpluses are being generated which are being used to subsidize post-1988 rents. Associations may be in a position to raise private loans to undertake energy efficiency measures which could be met by increasing rents to cover the loan repayments. Housing benefit could cover the increased rent where tenants qualify (around 60% of assured tenants do) and tenants could maintain their current heating standards at lower expenditure levels.

It is recognized that bedrooms may be used for other activities than sleeping, which should mean that they are heated to the same temperatures as living rooms. In practice, however, the Group has accepted the convention of lower temperatures for bedrooms even for daytime use and assumed a shorter period of occupancy of five hours during the day. Whilst somewhat arbitrary, this does allow for uses such as afternoon naps and evening homework. People are in the home for varying numbers of hours but follow remarkably similar activity patterns: over 50% of all time is spent in sedentary activity, resulting in low metabolic rates.

A major problem faced by the Working Group has been insufficient data on the housing conditions of the poorest households. Several surveys show that low-income families are less likely to have insulation measures, the cheapest fuels or the most efficient heating systems. The homes of the poor are more expensive to keep warm than those occupied by better-off households. The difficulty has been in quantifying the level and extent of deprivation. For instance, it is not known how many households have properties that would be rated below 2 on the NHER scale (discussed in Chapter 3), although 20% of the Scottish housing stock is below this figure.

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