By Zoe Davies
Many scholars have just a constrained wisdom of biology ahead of beginning quite a few equine classes, from BHS levels to nationwide certificates and degree and HND/degree. creation to Horse Biology offers all of the details scholars of equine matters require, quite these with out a GCSE or a degree in biology.
This e-book may be useful to all scholars of equine topics together with First degree, nationwide degree, nationwide certificates, better nationwide degree and better nationwide certificates and all scholars learning for BHS or different equine similar examinations. it's also excellent for critical horse vendors trying to find a greater realizing of horses and the way they function.
Zoe Davies is a former lecturer in equine technological know-how, a expert equine nutritionist, writer and exterior examiner for larger schooling classes. She has titanic adventure in equine administration and training.
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Extra info for Introduction to Horse Biology
Some metabolic reactions build things up, a process known as anabolism, while others break things down, a process known as catabolism. Anabolic, or build-up reactions, require an input of energy, and these reactions are called endothermic. Reactions that break things down, catabolic reactions, release energy and are therefore known as exothermic reactions. Examples of anabolic reactions are: • Linking of glucose units to form glycogen • Linking of amino acid units to build proteins Respiration (see later, pp.
Gastric juice is produced continuously by the stomach in horses. Some 10–30 l of gastric juice is secreted daily and contains: • Hydrochloric acid – neutralises bacteria and activates pepsin • Pepsin – an enzyme that acts on protein to produce peptones, beginning digestion • Rennin (foals only) – an enzyme that curdles milk, beginning its digestion Small intestine The length of the small intestine in the horse is approximately 20–27 m (65–88 ft) and has a capacity of 55–70 l. It runs from the stomach to the caecum and is split into three sections: ITHC04 11/29/2004 02:51PM Page 49 The Digestive System 49 • Duodenum • Jejunum • Ileum Structure The duodenum is approximately 1 m long and forms an S-shaped bend in which sits the pancreas.
Much outside of this range and the health of the horse will be affected. Many reactions within cells produce acids and bases (alkalis), and these have to be neutralised to maintain the correct pH for health. A delicate balance between acids and bases produced by the cells maintains the optimum pH. A base is a substance that will bind hydrogen ions and when dissolved in water produces an alkaline solution. When dissolved, some have the property of maintaining a constant pH. These are known as buffers.