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Extra resources for Introduction to Offshore Pipelines and Risers
When no carcass is present, the inner plastic layer will collapse if the annulus pressure exceeds the bore pressure, such as shut-off case. To avoid this problem, gas vent valves are installed at end fitting to relieve the annulus pressure. Rough bore (with carcass) can cause noise and vibrations at high flow velocity. The high density polyethylene (HDPE) is good for the content temperature of up to 65oC, Rilsan/nylon for up to 90oC, and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) for up to 130oC. PVDF is better for higher temperatures but it is stiffer than nylon (3% vs.
The smooth bore is not normally used for gas applications due to gas permeation problem. The pressure build-up in the annulus of the pipe can occur due to diffusion of gas through the plastic sheaths. When no carcass is present, the inner plastic layer will collapse if the annulus pressure exceeds the bore pressure, such as shut-off case. To avoid this problem, gas vent valves are installed at end fitting to relieve the annulus pressure. Rough bore (with carcass) can cause noise and vibrations at high flow velocity.
Wacker is purchased by Mineral Wool Cheapest form of insulation. 045 W/m-oK at 50oC) of all insulation materials but used extensively in the North Sea. 12 SG. Not good for low U value unless combined with other method such as heat tracing. PIP system requires bulkheads, water stops, and centralizers, depending on fabrication methods. 2). Intermediate bulkheads may require for reeled PIP to allow top tension to be transferred between the outer pipe and the inner pipe, at intervals of approximately 1 km.