By Prof. Dr. Klaus Christmann (auth.)
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Extra resources for Introduction to Surface Physical Chemistry
It is evident at this point that the physical body of the activation entropy calls for a microscopic interpretation, which we had already announced in the discussion of the preexponential factor. While the magnitude and the sign of AS* allow only fairly indirect conclusions about transient or intermediate stages of areaction, there are more and more modem spectroscopic tools available which render a more direct physical characterization of short-living reaction intermediates possible. Among others, this will be addressed in the subsequent chapters.
13. Particularly in organic chemistry, there are many relatively complicated molecules that still have fairly high symmetry, for example, benzene. ~-"m m dl c) 0) Fig. 12. Illustration of the loeal symmetry of adsorption sites: a) with C 6v and C 3v symmetry, respeetively; b) with C 4v symmetry (fourfold hollow and fourfold atop); e) with (quasi) threefold eoordination (C s symmetry with the rnirror planes m indieated) and (lower right) with C 1 symmetry (asymmetrie site); d) with C Zv symmetry (bridge site, hollow site) with the two rnirror planes m being indicated.
Here, we must be satisfied with a short description of the structural properties of Cu-Ru bimetallic catalysts, following Sinfelt et al. [46,47]. The Ru and Cu were, in a mono metallic form, dispersed onto a silica carrier either by sequential precipitation or coprecipitation from solution. Thereafter, cluster size distributions and shapes were determined by electron microscopy, whereby it is important to mention that Cu and Ru are immiscible in the bulk, although there is evidence of some chemical interaction between the two metals.