By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Additional info for Ionizing Radiation: Exposure to the Population of the U.S., Report 93 (N C R P Report)
For the 50,000,000 smokers, there is an additional exposure to the lungs from the naturally occurring radionuclides in tobacco products. The effective dose equivalent from this source is difficult to estimate and may not be meaningful. 3 and NCRP, 1987e). 3 mSv/y (130 mrem/y) from all sources, including a small contribution from consumer products which irradiate the whole body. S. population circa 1980-82 Average Annual Average Number of annual HB. S. exposed population (thousands) population (person-Sv)' (mSvIb (~SV)~ 230,000 230,000 930" -f 50,000 120,000 -25,000 -h -i 230,000 " H Eis the effective dose equivalent.
1person-Sv = 100 person-rem. Of this number, the predominant exposure is to that portion of the population using groundwater sources, insufficient data are available to specify the numbers of people most affected or the exposures they receive. "Sources used to check the performance of radiation monitoring instruments. 32 / 5. S. S. population ranges from about 60 to 120 PSV (6 to 12 mrem). S. population are exposed to all of these sources. 1 are not in error by a factor of more than ten. The effective dose equivalent resulting from the use of tobacco products is impossible to estimate in the present state of knowledge.
The Food and Drug Administration collected data from 26 hospitals for 12 months during 1977-1978. C. J. Lloyd Johnson Associates collected additional material in 1980 (Johnson and Abernathy, 1983). D. 6 percent in estimating the number of nuclear medicine procedures. It is believed that hospital-based data are a sufficient estimator of general nuclear medicine practice since more than 99 percent of all nuclear medicine procedures are performed in hospitals. 3 Special Considerations In general, medical exposures from diagnostic or therapeutic x rays result from radiation beams directed to specific areas of the body, so that not all organs are uniformly irradiated, and many are not within the field of irradiation.