By Homa Katouzian
Iran is an historic country, an oil-exporting economic system and an Islamic Republic. It skilled full-scale revolutions in the twentieth century, the latter of which had huge and demanding neighborhood and overseas results, together with an eight-year struggle with Saddam Hussein’s Iraq. And now in the twenty-first century, it confronts concerns and reviews difficulties that have very important implications for its destiny improvement and exterior relations.
Featuring amazing contributions from best sociologists, social anthropologists, political scientists and economists within the box of Iranian stories, this publication is the 1st to envision Iran and its place within the modern world.
In constructing this argument, subject matters tested include:
- social advancements within the kingdom together with gender relations
- contemporary politics
- international relations
- relations with the U.S. and Israel
- nuclear guns and effort programmes
- oil and the improvement of the economy.
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Extra resources for Iran in the 21st Century (Iranian Studies)
They will become (and have indeed increasingly become) part and parcel of the political process, no longer lending themselves to a military ‘solution’. 17 But it is precisely because of this explicit contradiction that the ‘ethnic’ question (along with the rights of the religious minorities including the Sunnis that intersect with ethnic minorities) has become one of the very important arenas in which democratic and civil liberties and the struggle to build effective institutions converge on one another.
24 The call for the reassertion of ‘autocracy’ à la China after a period of fractured politics is of course premised on the argument about the deep Iranian psycho-cultural need for the stern patrimonial rule of a father. The counter relies on the historical argument about the political inability to establish a viable autocracy and the perpetual deterioration of autocracy into arbitrary rule. What may be different in this new version of divide is the clear articulation and staking of claims as part and parcel of the gradual political process of reform: a process not only spurred by ideological contention but also by the hard realities that most Iranians seem to be physically and psychologically weary of tumultuous or abrupt change.
It is also a favoured strategy, for instance, in justifying post-revolutionary strivings towards the development of nuclear energy. Abbas Vali, ‘The Kurds and Their Fragmented “Others”: Fragmented Identity and Fragmented Politics’. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 21, 1&2 (2002): 82–94. Vali states that the Kurdish question in Iran is a question of denial of the Kurdish identity by the sovereign power and the Kurds’ resistance to this denial. A similar argument can be made regarding others, although a case can perhaps be made that the Kurdish question has proven more muscular and urgent given the persistence of the question in the surrounding countries.