By Anthony Alfonso
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Extra info for Japanese Language Patterns: A Structural Approach, Volume 1
8) Nishimura san ni aimashita ka? (NISHIDA SAN) 9) Eki made arukimasu ka? (NORIMASU) 10) Mado kara heya ni hairimashita ka? (DOA) 11) Moo mise kara kaerimashita ka? 12) Moo tomodachi ni aimashita ka? (MADA) 13) Kyoo Fujisan ni noborimasu ka? (ASHITA) 14) Kinoo shimbun ni demashita ka? 15) Ashita Koobe kara kimasu ka? (OOSAKA) 16) Ano resutoran ni hairimashita ka? 17) Ashita Tookyoo e ikimasu ka? (YOKOHAMA) 18) Moo paatii ni ikimashita ka? 19) Mainichi Oofuna kara Zushi made densha ni norimasu ka?
Note, too, that all the examples are QUESTIONS. TOPIC TIME WA KYOO Kyoo Kinoo Kinoo EIGA biiru eiga WA WA WA EIGA WA WA WA Shimbun Ano eiga Shimbun WA OBJECT biiru O O O O TABITABI VERB MIHMASU KA KA nomi-'MASU mi-iMASHITA KA nomi -Washita KA MI-|MASU mainichi moo moo yomi -IMASU mi-iMASHITA yomi-iMASHITA KA KA KA KA 3. Note the structure when the verb is in the negative and a word is also expressed. TOPIC/ TIME KYOO Ashita Kinoo Kyoo . ' WA WA OBJECT WA EIGA tegami eiga WA O tegami O O O the time VERB MIHMASEN kaki -MASEN mi --MASEN DESHIT A kaki JMASEN DESHIT A 19 The Topic of the Sentence 3.
Most of the verbs given in the Frame are VERBS OF MOTION, and the DIRECTION TO which or FROM which the motion takes place is signaled by various particles: (a) E and NI are equivalent to the English 'to1 or in' or 'into towards or for'. Either of them can be used indiscriminately with some verbs, such as IKIMASU, KAERIMASU, KIMASU, DEKAKEMASU. Theoretically there is a difference between the two: E signals the direction TOWARDS which one moves, while NI implies that one went INTO theplace indicated.