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Extra info for Kazakh Language Course for Peace Corps Volunteers in Kazakhstan
For example, if there was a verb characterizing an ongoing event, a related verb with perfective meaning was derived from it by adding an already existing perfectivizing suffix. Still, the formation of a consistent system of aspectual pairs was a huge task, and the already existing perfectivizing or imperfectivizing morphemes were not sufficient. Therefore, new morphemes had to be coined by extracting suffixes from existing verbs. For example, there was a suffix nõ, which was typical of a conjugation class which in the majority of cases listed verbs characterizing completed events.
Meillet 1958: 169). The presence of the nasal vowel proves that bõdetъ is perfective and implies a change of state. Possibly, it could have the meaning of ‘become’ (cf. 4 for more details). As can be expected, the perfectivizing nasal vowel is absent in the imperfective form, jestъ. 3 Auxiliary vs copula Morphologically, the paradigm of the verb ‘to be’ in Old Church Slavonic is the same regardless of whether it is used as a copula or as an auxiliary. However, its distribution may differ. For example, Van Schooneveld (1959: 142) points out that whereas the auxiliary in Old Russian was an enclitic and had to occur in the second position, the The Tense and Aspect system 35 copula was not.
However, it did not imply specific reference to the duration of an event or to the stretch of time between the event and the moment of speaking. Neither did it specify the time when an event took place or the consequences of an action. 3. Długosz-Kurczabowa and Dubisz (2001: 276-277) point out that the semantics of the aorist underwent some changes in the history of Slavic. In Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Slavic, the tense denoted past events, without referring to any aspectual distinctions. With the development of the imperfectum, the present perfect, and the pluperfect in Late Proto-Slavic, the aorist started to be used for denoting momentaneous, completed events.