By Graham Bishop (auth.)
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Extra info for Linear Electronic Circuits and Systems
11). 5 per cent, since the quiescent output current is low (poi nt Q s ), whereas class C operation can have 100 per cent efficiency, there being zero quiescent current. 5 per cent. 12, where two similar npn transistor circuits are connected in cascade, that is, one following the other in series. 4, the stage gain being obtained from the plotting of a load line on the set of output collector characteristics. The two-stage amplifier can be considered as two individual stages, V1N being amplified in TR1 to produce the collector output signal V 2 , and C I acti ng as a d,c, isolating capacitor.
This results in a substantial increase in reverse current. 2d. 3 The Junction Transistor The junction transistor consists of a layer of p-type material sandwiched between two layers of n-type material constituting the n-p-n transistor. The p-n-p transistor constructed in a similar way will not be described in this section since it has limited use in linear circuit design. 3 shows the construction and principle of operation. The base and emitter consist of two extrinsic Linear Electronic Circuits and Systems 32 p depletion layer ~ n ions (0) ---+-- carriers forward + bios (b) current flow electron flow reverse bios (c) depletion layer 1 forward bios -v v o -1 Fig.
C. output voltage (= -ie R c) approximates to -(vj/R e) x R e , the negative sign meaning inversion of the signal. The small signal gain A = VoN i ~ -RcIR E which is a good approximation to the gain of any transistor amplifier, providing R c and R E phasors are considered and the frequency is the midband frequency. Transistors and their Use in Linear Circuits 41 posit ive supply I input Fig. 9 A simple transistor amplifier. c. input 4~A ~ +/·6V 16~A R2 R. /mA Fig. 10 Current and voltage levels in a simple amplifier.