Metallographer's Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons by Bruce L. Bramfitt, Arlan O. Benscoter

By Bruce L. Bramfitt, Arlan O. Benscoter

Offers a superb evaluate of the real metallurgical techniques concerning microstructures of irons and steels, and it offers designated instructions for the right kind metallographic strategies used to bare, catch, and comprehend microstructures.

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Pearlite is a constituent that contains both ferrite and cementite. 77%. Pearlite forms through the eutectoid reaction, as described earlier. 19 shows a micrograph of pearlite. After etching with 4% picral, the cementite appears as a light gray phase, and the ferrite is white. This is because of the surface relief developed by the chemical etching process. As is explained in Chapter 5, surface relief influences the amount of light that is reflected away from the objective of a metallurgical microscope.

23. Electrical-Resistance Steels. Some steels with high electrical resistance are used for heating elements in household stoves and industrial ovens and furnaces. One such steel is Kanthal, which contains 25% Cr, 5% Al, and 3% Co. Ohmax is another steel with high resistance and is used for electrical resistors. 8% Al, and 0 to 5% Co. refers to the flake graphite that is present. The microstructure of a typical gray iron is shown in Fig. 24. Common unalloyed gray cast iron has the following broad range of chemical composition: Cast Irons The cast irons generally contain more than 2% C and a variety of other alloying elements.

6 A hypoeutectoid AISI/SAE 1040 steel showing a ferrite (white Fig. 4% C binary alloy showing proeutectoid etching constituent) and pearlite (dark etching constituent) microstructure. 4% picral and 2% nital etch. 800ϫ Kinetics of Phase Transformations It has been shown that the iron-carbon phase diagram is a plot of temperature and composition (carbon content). The transformations that were discussed previously took place at equilibrium conditions. However, in commercial practice, equilibrium is rarely approached.

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