By D. Tserenpil, R. Kullmann.
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Additional info for Mongolian grammar
Before or after such a consonant there needs to be a vowel! о r _ С (non;vocalized consonants) ^ Д, Ж, 3, C, T, X, Ц, Ч, Ш These 9-consonants can appear without a vowel. ) In genuine Mongolian words double consonants never appear at the beginning of a word. ) In genuine Mongolian words "л" und "n" never appear at the beginning of a word. ) After "ж", "ч", and "ш" in a second syllable, there is always an "и". g. 3 Signs There are two signs which have been borrowed from the Russian Cyrillic alphabet in order to express a special characteristic of Mongolian pronunciation.
1_Exception Rule to'лa'Suffix Word stem with two C 9 consonants , ~ла4 According to the basic rules, the vowel between two C 9 consonants is not dropped. That's why the suffix is used in its original form "-ла" with such word stems. Word stem хавтас ЭЕДЭС И£ЭЭШ Infinitive* хавтаслаэцэолэидээщлэ- Imperative хавтасла! эшелэ! идээшлэ! With suffixes хавтасласан, хавтасладаг, хавтаслана эш-дэсэн, эюслэдэг, эшалэнэ идээрщэсэн, идээшлэдэг, вдээшлэнз These "-ла" rules apply also for other derivational suffixes like "~pa4", "-да4".
There are rules that determine whether or not such an unstressed vowel (it can hardly be heard) must be written or not. If they can be dropped, they are called 'dropping vowels', if they need to be written,'they are called 'functional vowels' because they have to carry out a function (see exception rules on next pages). Basic Rules Strong word stem ending with "r M + weak suffixes! ex. *^" байшингийн, нутгийг, сангийн "ж, ч, ш, к" -f- weak suffixes! ^ сурагчийг, багщийг, католикийн Adding a suffix beginning with a vowel causes the unstressed vowel to drop!