By Bevil Richard Conway
Dr. Conway mapped the spatial and temporal constitution of the cone inputs to unmarried neurons within the fundamental visible cortex of the alert macaque. colour cells had receptive fields that have been usually Double-Opponent, a firm of spatial and chromatic opponency enough to shape the root for colour fidelity and spatial colour distinction. just about all colour cells gave an even bigger reaction to paint while preceded through an contrary colour, suggesting that those cells additionally encode temporal colour distinction. In sum, colour notion is probably going subserved by way of a subset of specialised neurons within the fundamental visible cortex. those cells are detailed from those who most probably underlie shape and movement belief. colour cells identify 3 colour axes adequate to explain all shades; furthermore those cells are in a position to computing spatial and temporal colour distinction - and possibly give a contribution to paint fidelity computations - as the receptive fields of those cells express spatial and temporal chromatic opponency.
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Extra info for neural mechanisms of Color Vision: Double-Opponent Cells in the Visual Cortex
M plus - -. S. 3. Red-on-center cells (open squares); green-on-center cells (filled circles). g. g. 3). 5 continued) Suppression was then quantified as a percentage of reduction of background, in which background was calculated from the firing rates for the first 40 ms of the PSTH. Excitation was quantified as (peak - background) in spikes/second. 3 is identified for reference. 6A). 6A). 6A). Suppression in the plus stimulus maps can be inferred by the minus stimulus maps, which reveal a similar spatial distribution but produce excitation.
Diagrams of the receptive fields of color-responsive cells. lus indicates excitation by the given cone, a minus, suppressIOn. Type I and Type II cells are found in the lateral gemculate nucleus. Note tnat the surrounds of Type I cells infiltrate the centers, so that in this case (B), the center would also be suppressed by M cones. The sizes of Type II cell receptive fields are substantially larger than those of Type I cells. I found that the majority of cortical color cells with Type II-like centers are Double-Opponent (C), and many of them appear to receive 5-cone input (D).
In principle such "Double-Opponent" cells could subserve color perception (and color constancy) in primates (Daw, 1968; Rubin and Richards, 1982; Livingstone and Hubel, 1984; Dufort and Lumsden, 1991; Courtney et aI, 1995). A single DoubleOpponent cell exceeds Retinex's requirement of a spatial comparison for one cone class: it is a spatial comparison for two cone classes. Moreover, independent component analysis of natural images predicts that color is coded by a separate colordouble-opponent pathway, in conjunction with a luminance channel (Tailor et aI, 2000).