By ASM International
The fundamental ideas of every procedure besides its corresponding features are defined in 23 separate articles. exact info is equipped on established tools similar to liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy present and radiographic inspection, electronic picture enhancement, ultrasonic inspection, tomography, and real-time radiography.
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Extra info for Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control. Metals Handbook
Because of their considerable advantages, touch-trigger probes are replacing hard probes in many applications. Touch-trigger probes are also available in many configurations and types, that is, with extensions, special mounts, multiaxis motorized heads, and so on. Noncontact trigger probes are used in a similar manner to the contact touch-trigger probes described above. However, with noncontact probes, a beam of light (generally a diode) is used (operating as an optical switch) to probe the workpiece rather than the physical contact of a probe tip.
Gantry CMMs employ three movable components moving along mutually perpendicular guideways (Fig. 7). The probe is attached to the probe quill, which moves vertically (z-direction) relative to a crossbeam. The probe quill is mounted in a carriage that moves horizontally (y-direction) along the crossbeam. The crossbeam is supported and moves in the xdirection along two elevated rails, which are supported by columns attached to the floor. Fig. 7 Schematic of gantry CMM illustrating movement of probe, crossbeam, and elevated rails The gantry design has relatively restricted part access unless utilized in very large machines.
It is analogous to the coordinate system used on a radial-arm saw or radial-arm drill. Types of Measurements. As stated earlier, fundamentally, CMMs measure the size and shape of an object and its contours by gathering raw data through sensors or probes. The data are then combined and organized through computer software programs to form a coherent mathematical representation of the object being measured, after which a variety of inspection reports can be generated. There are three general types of measurements for which CMMs are commonly used, as follows.